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The bond of alliance between the Congress and the Muslim League was cemented by the conclusion of the Lucknow Pact in 1916. In this context mention the main features of the Pact?

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  1. Independent Unit: India was to be treated as an independent unit of the Empire, as a self autonomous state with equal rights and responsibility.
  2. Provincial Legislatures: Four-fifth of the members of the Provincial Legislatures were to be elected and one fifth nominated. One third of the elected members were to be Muslims.
  3. Powers of the Imperial Legislative: Defence, Foreign affairs, and political relations of India i.e. making of war, peace and signing of treaty were to be excluded from the control of the Imperial Legislative.
  4. Bills related to Religious Interests: No bill could be introduced in the Legislative Council if it affected the interest of any community and such a bill could not be passed if it was opposed by three-fourths of that community.
  5. Composition of Viceroy’s Executive Council: Half the members of the Viceroy’s Executive Council should be Indians elected by the elected members of the Imperial Legislative Council.
  6. Separation of Judiciary from Executive: Judiciary should be separated from Executive. Members of the judiciary in every Province should be placed under the control of the highest court of that Province.
  7. Abolition of Council of the Secretary of State: The Council of the Secretary of State for India shall be abolished and he shall have same position with regard to the Government of India as he does in relation to the government of self governing colonies.

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